Марина Владимировна




Article Проблематика гендерных трансформаций в современном спорте

PROBLEMS OF GENDER TRANSFORMATIONS IN MODERN SPORT M.V. Averina, associate professor, Ph.D. Russian state university of physical culture, sport and tourism, Moscow Key words: male and female sports, gender, male calisthenics, male synchronous swimming, body transformation. The purpose of the present research was to consider problems of gender transformations in modern sport. Representing sport as a strictly male occupation: both as a sphere of vocational activity and sphere of leisure and space for acquiring gender-role identity – had been strong till active inclusion of women in sports influenced by feminist movements from beginning till end of XX. The process promoted gradual division of sports to mainly male: weightlifting, rowing, cycling, wrestling, modern pentathlon, boxing, kick-boxing, ice-hockey and mainly female ones: calisthenics and synchronous swimming. Herewith there was allocated a group of sports, which gender acceptability limits had become practically the same for men and women. Gradual acceleration of social time, complication of forms of social life, corresponding change in natural environment, increase of the number of stress-producing factors etc. facilitated active break of gender-role stereotypes. Arising of women in traditionally male sports disciplines induced corresponding circle of experts to study the regulating effect on athletes of gender-role or gender stereotypes. In the last decade the opposed process has been gaining its force: men actively master traditionally female sport such as calisthenics and synchronous swimming. The studies of the precedent of arising interest of men in female sport, reconstruction of gender stereotypes in context of acceptability for men of these directions in sport are on the stage of studies.